The Dogmatic Sarcophagus
First half of the 4th century
Museo Pio Cristiano, The Vatican, Rome
This sarcophagus is called "dogmatic" because the images in the upper left-hand corner appear to reinforce dogmas proclaimed in 325 at the Council of Nicea. In the first panel the doctrine of the Trinity is expressed by showing the one God who created Eve as three very similar bearded men. The second panel indicates that Jesus Christ is fully God besides being fully man by the showing him as the one expelling Adam and Eve from Eden. In this and all the panels from the Gospels, he is portrayed as a beardless young man in a toga.
The man and woman in the clipeus are the couple for whom the sarcophagus was carved.
Detail photos with discussion:
Photographed at the museum by Richard Stracke, shared under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.