The Virgin Mary Enthroned

The second millenium provides countless images such as the one at left, with the Virgin Mary seated on a throne and the child Jesus on her lap.  They are also well known in the first millenium (example). Angels are always a feature of this genre, and usually we also see saints -- either in adjoining panels as at left or within the same frame.

Images of the Virgin Mary enthroned are related to the Throne of Wisdom type but do not feature the book and the frontal gaze that characterize the latter.  Also compare the Maria Ecclesia type, where Mary, representing the Church, is enthroned at the right hand of an adult Christ.

At left, central panel of Masaccio's Pisa Polyptych

Other images:
Vivarini, Polyptych of the Virgin and Child, 1449
Giovanni di Paolo's Polyptych of 1454
Bottega dei Coda's Madonna Enthroned with Saints, 16th century
Lotto, The Madonna and Saints, 1546
Girolamo dai Libri, Virgin and Child with Saints, 1520
6th-century mosaic in Ravenna