Rüdiger Schopf, The Flogging of the Apostles
Manuscript illustration, colored ink on paper
Basel, Universitätsbibliothek, A II 12, fol. 16v
(Nicholas of Lyra's Postil on the Acts of the Apostles)
The image illustrates Acts 5:40, "And calling in the apostles, after they [the Sanhedrin] had scourged them, they charged them that they should not speak at all in the name of Jesus; and they dismissed them." The crossed-arms gesture may be meant to express the apostles' reaction, "rejoicing that they were accounted worthy to suffer reproach for the name of Jesus" (5:41b). The man with the whip wears the pointed cap imposed on Jews in the Middle Ages.
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More of the apostles as a group